Every driver needs to prepare a record of duty status for each 24-hour period. Failure to record, complete, or retain the log, or knowingly falsifying logs or other reports, makes the driver and/or carrier liable to prosecution. Logs must be kept current by showing each change in duty status. The time zone used on a driver’s daily log should be the time standard of that driver’s home terminal. An example driver’s record of duty status can be found in FMCSA's Interstate Truck Driver’s Guide to Hours of Service. See 49 CFR 395.8 for more information.
Short-Haul Exemptions to Record of Duty Status Regulations
There are exceptions to the RODS regulations for drivers that drive short distances:
- 100 air-mile radius driver exemption (see 49 CFR 395.1 (e)(1)).
- 150 air-mile radius driver exemption, for drivers of property-carrying CMVs who do not require a CDL and operate within a 150 air-mile radius of their normal work reporting location (see 49 CFR 395.1 (e)(2)).
Details about all exceptions from the HOS regulations can be found in FMCSA's Interstate Truck Driver’s Guide to Hours of Service.
Drivers must meet all of the qualifications specified in the regulations to use an exemption. If even one of the qualifications is not met, then all of the standard hours of service rules apply.
Electronic Logging Devices (395 Subpart B) and Automatic On-Board Recording Devices (395.15)
Beginning December 18, 2017, motor carriers subject to the Electronic Logging Device (ELD) rule must automatically record on- and off-duty time using an ELD. Motor carriers who have an automatic on-board recording device (AOBRD) that was installed and in-use prior to December 18, 2017, may continue to use this device to record and share HOS data until December 16, 2019.
When requested by an authorized safety official, a motor carrier must produce ELD records in an electronic format either at the time of the request or, if the motor carrier has multiple offices or terminals, within the time permitted under 49 CFR 390.29. A motor carrier must retain for 6 months, a back-up copy of the ELD records on a device separate from that on which the original data are stored.
More information about the ELD rule, including a complete list of exemptions, can be found on FMCSA’s ELD webpage.
Submitting/Retaining Duty Status Paper Logs (395.8 (a)(2)(ii) and 395.8 (k))
A driver who is not subject to the ELD rule may still be subject to HOS regulation. In this case, the driver must submit the original paper log sheet to the employing carrier within 13 days after trip completion. The driver shall retain a copy of each ROD status for the previous seven consecutive days, which shall be in his/her possession and available for inspection while on duty. All hard copies of the driver’s record of duty status must be signed by the driver.
When a motor carrier uses a driver initially or intermittently, the carrier must obtain from its driver a signed statement giving the total time on duty during the immediately preceding seven days, and the time at which the driver was last relieved of duty. See Hours of Service for First Time or Intermittent Drivers form. Records of duty status must be maintained, with all supporting documents, for a minimum of 6 months. See Sections 395.8 (a)(2)(ii) and 395.8 (k).